Development (Class 10 )Notes Economics Chapter 1 NCERT

Welcome to Today, we are providing notes on social science (SST) Economics Chapter 1 (Development) for class 10. We hope that these notes or summaries of economics chapter 1 for class 10 will help you in your school and competitive examinations.


Development is the process in which something grows, becomes more mature & advances.

Principles / Features of Developmental Goals

  • Different people have different developmental goals
  • People look at a mix of goals
  • What may be development for one may not be developed for other

When we compare different things they could have similarities as well as differences. So the result depends on the purpose of comparing.

Principles / Features of Developmental Goals

Economic Growth is Increase in real National Income / National output.
Economic Development reflects not only the increase in the number of goods and services produced by every sector of the economy but also a positive change in their quality. Economic development relates to the improvement in social as well environmental indicators which reflect the quality of life and wellbeing.

For comparing countries, their Income is considered to be the most important attribute.

National Income:-

National income is defined as the total value of all the goods and services produced within a country plus net income coming from abroad.

Per Capita Income: –

When the total national income is divided by the total population, it is called the per capita income or Average Income
Per Capita Income = National Income / Total Population

Gross Domestic Product:-

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) refers to the sum total of the monetary value of all the final goods
and services produced within the domestic borders of a country during a financial year. It is income
produced within the domestic boundary of a country.

Gross National Product

Gross National Product (GNP) Sum of all goods & services with a value of import & export in an
accounting year.

In the World Development Report, 2017 brought out by the World Bank

  • Countries with a per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries.
  • Countries with a per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries.

India comes in the category of low middle-income countries because its per capita income in
2017 was just US$ 1820 per annum.
Presently Goa has the highest per capita income, while Bihar has the least in India

Public Facilities

Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well. For example, money cannot buy you a pollution-free environment or Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases.

We actually are able to use goods and services because others in the Community want to use them.

People do not face food shortage problems where Public Distribution System (PDS) works in a
fair manner.

Even though the level of income is important, it is an inadequate measure of the level of development. Human Development is a “Human Centered” approach to Development.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) introduced the Human Development
Index(HDI) in 1990 for measuring and comparing countries based on

  • the educational levels of the people
  • their health status
  • per capita income in purchasing power parity in US$ (PPP.US$)

India ranks 131 out of 189 countries on the 2020 Human Development Index (HDI) released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Literacy Rate –

The proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.

Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) –

The number of children that die before the age of one year is a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

Maternal mortality rate –

The number of registered maternal deaths due to birth- or pregnancy-related complications per 100,000 registered live births.

Net Attendance Ratio –

The total number of children in the age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.

Body Mass Index (BMI) –

BMI is used to find out whether adults are undernourished. BMI is not applicable to growing children. It is calculated in the following way

If the figure is less than 18.5 then the person is considered undernounshed and if the figure is 25
and above then a person is overweight.

Sustainable Development:-

The efficient utilization of resources not only for the present but for future generations also.

We hope that these notes of development will help the students of class 10 for scoring good marks in their school exams.

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